Cloud Robotics and Automation
What if robots and automation systems were not limited by onboard
computation, memory, or programming? This is now conceivable
with wireless networking and rapidly expanding Internet resources. In 2010,
James Kuffner at Google introduced the term "Cloud Robotics" to
describe a new approach to robotics that takes advantage of the
Internet as a resource for massively parallel computation and
sharing of vast data resources.
The Google autonomous
driving project exemplifies this approach: the system indexes maps and
images that are collected and updated by satellite, Streetview, and
crowdsourcing to facilitate accurate localization.
Another example is Kiva Systems new approach to warehouse automation
and logistics using large numbers of mobile platforms to move pallets
using a local network to coordinate planforms and update tracking
data. These are just two new projects that build on resources from the
Steve Cousins of Willow Garage aptly summarized the idea: "No
robot is an island." Cloud Robotics recognizes the wide availability
of networking, incorporates elements of open-source, open-access, and
crowdsourcing to greatly extend earlier concepts of "Online Robots"
and "Networked Robots".
Cloud Robotics has potential to improve performance in at least
five ways: 1) Big Data: indexing a global library of images, maps, and
object data, 2) Cloud Computing: parallel grid computing on demand for
statistical analysis, learning, and motion planning, 3) Open-Source /
Open-Access: humans sharing code, data, algorithms, and hardware
designs, 4) Collective Robot Learning: robots sharing trajectories,
control policies, and outcomes, and 5) Crowdsourcing and call centers:
offline and on-demand human guidance for evaluation, learning, and
A Survey of Research on Cloud Robotics and Automation.
Ben Kehoe, Sachin Patil, Pieter Abbeel, Ken Goldberg.
IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering (T-ASE): Special
Issue on Cloud Robotics and Automation. Vol. 12, no. 2. Apr. 2015. To Appear.
Robots with Their Heads in the Clouds.
Medium.com, from Aspen Ideas Festival Talk. Posted Aug 2014.
New Research Center Aims to Develop Second Generation of Surgical Robots. John Markoff, NY Times, Oct, 2014.
The Robot in the Cloud: A Conversation With Ken Goldberg.
Quentin Hardy, NY Times, Oct, 2014
The RoboBrain Project. Aug 2014.
Cloud Robotics. The Atlantic, by Megan Garber.
DARPA on Cloud Robotics. April 2014.
Big Push in Robotics Now Seems Imminent.
The Economist. 29 March 2014.
(Cloud Robotics discussed in last section).
NPR Science Friday by Jordan Davidson. 26 March 2014.
(Cloud Robotics discussed in last section).
T-ASE Special Issue on Cloud Robotics and Automation.
Submissions now closed: To Appear in 2015.
Open Call for References for new Survey Paper on Cloud Robotics and Automation.
Moments that Stood out at SXSW: Panel on Cloud Robotics and Automation. Wall Street Journal, 11 March 2014.
Panel on Cloud Robotics and Automation with James Kuffner of Google, Ayorkor Korsah of Ashesi Univ in Ghana, and Ken Goldberg, UC Berkeley.
SXSW. Austin, TX, US. Mar 9, 2014.
IROS Workshop on Cloud Robotics. Tokyo. Nov 2013.
Cloud Robotics in "Why We Love Robots."
Short Documentary Film including section on Cloud Robotics.
(Nominated for Emmy Award and winner of Botscar Award at Robot Film Festival), Oct 2013.
CASE 2013 Workshop on Cloud Manufacturing and Automation. Aug 2013.
Cloud-Based Robot Mapping. June 2013.
Vlad Usenko, Markus Waibel,
Mohanarajah Gajamohan, Dominique Hunziker, Dhananjay Sathe, Mayank Singh.
Cloud-Based Robot Grasping with the Google Object Recognition Engine.
Ben Kehoe, Akihiro Matsukawa, Sal Candido, James Kuffner, and Ken Goldberg.
IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation. Karlsruhe, Germany. May 2013.
US National Science Foundation Workshop on Cloud Robotics: Challenges and Opportunities, Feb 2013.
- Cloud Robotics and Automation: A Survey of Related
Work. K. Goldberg and B. Kehoe. EECS Department, University of
California, Berkeley, Technical Report UCB/EECS-2013-5. January 2013.
Romo: $150 cloud-enabled robot from Romotive.
"USD 10 Robot" Design Challenge Winners.
Results of an open design competition for an affordable robot for K-12 education, 2012.
Organized by the African Robotics Network.
Toward Cloud-Based Grasping with Uncertainty in Shape: Estimating
Lower Bounds on Achieving Force Closure with Zero-Slip Push
Ben Kehoe, Dmitry Berenson, Ken Goldberg. IEEE International
Conference on Robotics and Automation. May 2012.
Cloud Robotics: Connected to the Cloud, Robots Get Smarter
Erico Guizzo. IEEE Spectrum. 2011.
In June 2011, President
Obama announced the
U.S. National Robotics Initiative,
$70M for new research.
ROS in Java for
Robots using Android phones and tablets by Damon Kohler (Google Munich), 2011.
RoboEarth - A World Wide Web for Robots
Markus Waibel, Raffaello D'Andrea et al. 2011.
Willow Garage and Google announce ROS Java Library for Cloud Robotics, 2011.
Cloud-Enabled Humanoid Robots, James J. Kuffner. IEEE-RAS International
Conference on Humanoid Robotics. 2010.
IEEE RAS Technical Committee on Networked Robots
Beyond Webcams: An Introduction to Online Robots. MIT Press. 2001.
Platform for Robotics Research Based on the Remote-Brained Robot
Approach. Masayuki Inaba, Satoshi Kagami, Fumio Kanehiro, Yukiko
Hoshino, Hirochika Inoue. International Journal of Robotics Research
(IJRR) 2000, 19:933.